Cardiology & Vascular Research

Abstract

Hypertensive Heart Disease, Epidemiological, Diagnostic and Evolutionary Aspects: About 103 Cases in a Cardiology Department of Sikasso Hospital in Mali

Traore Abdoulaye Kissima, Sangaré Zoumana, Doumbia Modibo, Mingou Joseph Salvador, Traore Ousmane, Birwe Leon, Traore Salia, Dioma Elie, Sanogo Drissa, Bodian Malick, Kane Adama.

Introduction: Hypertensive heart disease is a complication of uncontrolled high blood pressure. It affects 0.7% of the world's population and is the leading cause of death due to high blood pressure.

Objectives: Determine the prevalence and study the epidemiological, diagnostic and progressive aspects of hypertensive heart disease.

Patients and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study over a two-year period (July 1st, 2014 to June 30th, 2016) in the Cardiology Department of Sikasso Hospital for any patient hospitalized for hypertensive heart disease.

Results: One hundred and three patients were selected, representing a hospital prevalence of 7.21%. The mean age of the population was 52 years (15-82 years) with a male predominance (63%) and a sex ratio of 1.7. Smoking was the most common cardiovascular risk factor associated with high blood pressure (71.7%). High blood pressure grade III according to the World Health Organization classification was found in 52.4%. The electrocardiogram showed isolated left ventricular hypertrophy in 89.3% of patients and associated with atrial fibrillation in 9.7%. Doppler echocardiography showed an altered left ventricular ejection fraction (less than 45%) in 58.25% of cases and left ventricular hypertrophy in all patients with a predominance of the concentric type (52.9%). Therapeutically, diuretics and conversion enzyme inhibitors were used in 73.7%, beta-blockers in 17.3% and calcium channel blockers in 9%. Complications were dominated by congestive heart failure (52%), arrhythmia (21%), ischemic stroke (4%). The average length of hospitalization was 5 days. The mortality rate was 1.97%.

Conclusions: Hypertensive heart disease is a common complication of high blood pressure. The prognosis depends on screening and proper management of the scourge of high blood pressure.

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