Authors: Traore Abdoulaye Kissima, Sangaré Zoumana, Doumbia Modibo, Mingou Joseph Salvador, Traore Ousmane, Birwe Leon, Traore Salia, Dioma Elie, Sanogo Drissa, Bodian Malick, Kane Adama.
Introduction: Hypertensive heart disease is a complication of uncontrolled high blood pressure. It affects 0.7% of the world's population and is the leading cause of death due to high blood pressure.
Objectives: Determine the prevalence and study the epidemiological, diagnostic and progressive aspects of hypertensive heart disease.
Patients and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study over a two-year period (July 1st, 2014 to June 30th, 2016) in the Cardiology Department of Sikasso Hospital for any patient hospitalized for hypertensive heart disease.
Results: One hundred and three patients were selected, representing a hospital prevalence of 7.21%. The mean age of the population was 52 years (15-82 years) with a male predominance (63%) and a sex ratio of 1.7. Smoking was the most common cardiovascular risk factor associated with high blood pressure (71.7%). High blood pressure grade III according to the World Health Organization classification was found in 52.4%. The electrocardiogram showed isolated left ventricular hypertrophy in 89.3% of patients and associated with atrial fibrillation in 9.7%. Doppler echocardiography showed an altered left ventricular ejection fraction (less than 45%) in 58.25% of cases and left ventricular hypertrophy in all patients with a predominance of the concentric type (52.9%). Therapeutically, diuretics and conversion enzyme inhibitors were used in 73.7%, beta-blockers in 17.3% and calcium channel blockers in 9%. Complications were dominated by congestive heart failure (52%), arrhythmia (21%), ischemic stroke (4%). The average length of hospitalization was 5 days. The mortality rate was 1.97%.
Conclusions: Hypertensive heart disease is a common complication of high blood pressure. The prognosis depends on screening and proper management of the scourge of high blood pressure.View/Download pdf